Fortran is a compiled language that is old as hell. It was cooked up by John Backus way back in 1953. According to the Fortran Wikipedia article, it's also structured, imperative, procedural, and object oriented. The name was derived from Formula Translation and it was built for mathing and sciencing (both words I made up). Wikipedia has the following to say about Fortran:
It is a popular language for high-performance computing and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.
Huh. Alright, well let's use it to make a CSV file.
Quick Fortran Primer
If you want to follow along, you'll need the ability to compile Fortran on your computer. There's online REPLs that can run Fortran, but we're doing file I/O, so that won't fly. If you're a macOS user, you can use gfortran, which gets bundled with GCC. You can install it with Homebrew:
brew install gcc
If you are using Windows, godspeed.
Compiling is a piece of cake:
gfortran example.f95 -o example
I'm not going to spend too much time talking about the various keywords and syntax associated with Fortran.
I'll let the code do the talking. I will note that I'm using Fortran 95, which added some neat features and
DOESN'T REQUIRE ME TO WRITE ALL CODE IN UPPERCASE.
That's being said, I will mention a couple of things I thought were interesting. Declaring variables
is a little wonky: you use two colons (
::). Most of the examples I've seen do a lot of reference
passing to subroutines (reminiscent of C/C++ and Windows API calls). Here's a contrived example:
program some_program integer :: i_need_this call get_what_i_need(i_need_this) print *, i_need_this ! This prints out 10 contains subroutine get_what_i_need(i_need_this) integer :: i_need_this i_need_this = 10 end subroutine get_what_i_need end program some_program
I imagine if you're a die-hard functional programming enthusiast, you're breathing into a paper bag right now. It ain't pretty, but it works.
Getting data from files can also be a little tricky. You have to create a "status" integer variable that indicates when you've reached the end of a file. I haven't programmed in enough languages to know if that's weird or normal.
const myString = "stringydoodle"; console.log(myString); // <- Prints "stringydoodle"
Let's try that in Fortran:
program test character(12) :: my_string my_string = "stringydoodle" print *, my_string ! <- Prints "stringydoodl" end program test
The eagle-eyed among you noticed that the Fortran example printed
because you have to either explicitly specify a character length or use dynamically-allocatable
strings (another reason for using Fortran 95). So you can do this instead:
program test character(len=:), allocatable :: my_string my_string = "stringydoodle" print *, my_string ! <- Prints "stringydoodle", hooray! end program test
With all that out of the way, let's get crackin'.
I'm going to use Fortran to take some input as a text file, sort it, and output it to a CSV file.
I generated some data on generatedata.com. It's
a list of random names with a numeric value separated by a
| (pipe) character. If you want to follow along, I
created a gist with the Fortran file and input data.
Here's a snippet of the data (
Vivian Larson|5458 Geraldine Gibson|9207 Violet Price|9745 Hilda Cohen|6835 ...
input.txt file in the gist has 200 names. We're going to treat the number to the right of the
pipe character as a debt that's owed to...someone. To whom it is owed isn't really important. As mentioned
earlier, the program will read it, sort the values, and output it to a CSV file.
Let's start with some initialization code. The snippet below represents the start of the program.
I'm defining a type,
debtor with a
debt property (which corresponds to the input file).
I'm using global variables (gasp) because I didn't want to pass the
every single method.
After all of the initialization mumbo jumbo, I'm calling the
prioritize_debt() methods to actually make the program do stuff. I'll be going over those
program debt_prioritizer implicit none type debtor character(len=:), allocatable :: name integer :: debt end type debtor type(debtor), dimension(:), allocatable :: debtors integer :: debtor_count = 0 call assign_values_to_globals() call prioritize_debt() contains
assign_values_to_globals() method calls the
subroutine assign_values_to_globals() call assign_debtor_count(debtor_count) allocate(debtors(debtor_count)) call assign_debtors() end subroutine assign_values_to_globals
assign_debtor_count() method loops through the file to determine how many people owe
money. I know this seems stupid to open the file twice, but I couldn't find a way to dynamically
allocate items to an array that I could actually understand.
subroutine assign_debtor_count(debtor_count) integer :: debtor_count, read_status, sum_of_lines = 0 open(10, file = "input.txt", status = "old", action = "read") do read(10, *, iostat = read_status) if (read_status /= 0) exit sum_of_lines = (sum_of_lines + 1) end do close(10) debtor_count = sum_of_lines end subroutine assign_debtor_count
assign_debtors() method below opens the input file (again), loops through the records, and
debtors array with the
debt of the corresponding
get_name_and_debt() method parses the file line to split the value into a
subroutine assign_debtors() character(50) :: line, name integer :: read_status, debt, line_number = 1 open(10, file = "input.txt", status = "old", action = "read") do read(10, "(A)", iostat = read_status) line if (read_status /= 0) exit call get_name_and_debt(line, name, debt) debtors(line_number)%name = name debtors(line_number)%debt = debt line_number = (line_number + 1) end do close(10) end subroutine assign_debtors subroutine get_name_and_debt(line, name, debt) character(1) :: DELIM = "|" character(50) :: line, name, debt_string integer :: debt, index line = trim(line) index = scan(line, DELIM) name = line(1 : index - 1) debt_string = line(index + 1 : ) read(debt_string, '(I5)') debt end subroutine get_name_and_debt
Once the debtors are loaded into the array and their debt is calculated, the
method reorders them descending by debt (so whoever owes the most money is right at the top of the
sort_descending_by_debt() method is a ridiculously inefficient bubble sort. It loops through
each record, and within that loop it does another loop. The higher debt amount is moved before the
lower debt amount. This has to be done for each record, which is why there are 2 loops.
subroutine prioritize_debt() call sort_descending_by_debt() call write_debtors_to_file() print *, "Done!" end subroutine prioritize_debt subroutine sort_descending_by_debt() integer :: i, j do i = 1, debtor_count do j = debtor_count, (i + 1), -1 call swap(debtors(j - 1), debtors(j)) end do end do end subroutine sort_descending_by_debt subroutine swap(left_debtor, right_debtor) type(debtor) :: left_debtor, right_debtor, temp if (left_debtor%debt < right_debtor%debt) then temp = right_debtor right_debtor = left_debtor left_debtor = temp end if end subroutine swap
The final step is the
write_debtors_to_file() method below. If the file doesn't already
exist, I create it in the same directory as the compiled program. Once the file exists,
it writes each debtor to the file.
subroutine write_debtors_to_file() character(len=:), allocatable :: name_trimmed integer :: debtor_number print *, "Creating the output file..." open(20, file = "output.csv", action = "write") write (20, "(A)") "Name,Debt" do i = 1, debtor_count name_trimmed = trim(debtors(i)%name) print *, debtors(i)%debt write (20, 2000) name_trimmed, ",", debtors(i)%debt 2000 format (A, A1, I5) end do close(20) end subroutine write_debtors_to_file end program debt_prioritizer
That's all there is to it. If you want to make sure it works, download the files in the gist and run the following command to compile it:
gfortran debt-prioritizer.f95 -o debt-prioritizer
If everything compiled, try running the program:
You should see an
output.csv file with the names sorted descending by debt amount.
I'll admit I wasn't crazy about Fortran at first, but the more I wrote, the more I liked it. I would imagine I'd appreciate it much more if I had to crunch some serious numbers.
Considering it's one of the oldest compiled languages and it's still being used all the time, I'd venture to guess that it's pretty powerful. If you ever need to create a CSV file using Fortran under threat of serious bodily harm, you can thank me when you succeed.